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By Frederick C. Beiser

Histories of German philosophy within the 19th century normally specialize in its first half--when Hegel, idealism, and Romanticism ruled. against this, the rest of the century, after Hegel's demise, has been quite ignored since it has been noticeable as a interval of stagnation and decline. yet Frederick Beiser argues that the second one half the century was once actually essentially the most innovative sessions in sleek philosophy as the nature of philosophy itself was once up for grabs and the very absence of simple task ended in creativity and the beginning of a brand new period.

In this cutting edge concise background of German philosophy from 1840 to 1900, Beiser focuses no longer on issues or person thinkers yet really at the period's 5 nice debates: the identification problem of philosophy, the materialism controversy, the equipment and boundaries of background, the pessimism controversy, and the "Ignorabimusstreit." Schopenhauer and Wilhelm Dilthey play very important roles in those controversies yet so do many ignored figures, together with Ludwig Buchner, Eugen Duhring, Eduard von Hartmann, Julius Fraunstaedt, Hermann Lotze, Adolf Trendelenburg, and ladies, Agnes Taubert and Olga Pluemacher, who've been thoroughly forgotten in histories of philosophy.

The result's a wide-ranging, unique, and outstanding new account of German philosophy within the serious interval among Hegel and the 20 th century."

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1. 3 Kuno Fischer, Kant’s Leben und die Grundlagen seiner Lehre (Mannheim: Bassermann, 1860), p. 95. 17 c hap t er 1 positivists and materialists believed, could be solved by the empirical sciences, so that there simply was no place anymore for philosophy. ”4 It is important to recognize that there was an institutional con­ text behind the identity crisis of philosophy. The crisis was not only a spiritual or intellectual problem but a “bread and butter” issue. Most philosophers could survive only within a university, only as members of an academic faculty; very few could live on book royalties and lecture fees alone.

Avenarius (Leipzig: Fues, 1877–­1901), 24 vols. In 1902 the journal appeared under the new title Vierteljahrschrift für wissenschaftliche Philosophie und Soziologie, ed. Paul Barth (Leipzig: Riesland, 1902–­16), 15 vols. 39 c hap t er 1 only another empirical science, so that its possibility and methods should fall under transcendental philosophy. The major problem with the neo-­Kantian conception, however, was its narrowness. It was fine in defining theoretical philosophy; but it ignored entirely practical philosophy.

The ambiguity was finally settled in the early 1870s in favor of the logical reading. —­W hat are the causes and sources of knowl­ edge? Another argument, however, claimed that only this reading could solve the identity crisis. If transcendental philosophy is essen­ tially psychology, what distinguishes it from the growing empirical science of psychology? A psychological reading of transcendental philosophy allows it to be too readily subsumed under the empiri­ cal sciences, so that philosophy loses its unique vocation and status.

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