Download Acids and Bases (Essential Chemistry) by Kristi Lew PDF

By Kristi Lew

Acids and bases are crucial parts of the flora and fauna that play key roles in medication and undefined. This e-book takes an in depth examine those attention-grabbing, but contrasting, ingredients, giving concrete, actual global examples with a variety of vibrant illustrations.

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Additional resources for Acids and Bases (Essential Chemistry)

Example text

When the valve is opened, the gas can be collected. indd 56 11/16/09 2:08:45 PM Acids and Bases in Industry 57 builds up in the apparatus. As the gas pressure builds up, it forces the acid out of the center bowl and back into the bottom and top bowls. With the acid no longer in contact with the solid, gas pro-­ duction stops. If more gas is needed, the valve is reopened and the ­built-­up gas is released (and collected). The acid, which is no longer held back by gas pressure, can then move from the top and bottom bowls back into the center bowl.

Therefore, the solution is more alkaline, or basic. A solution with an equal number of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is neutral. 00 x 10–14 [mol/L]2). Therefore, a neutral solution has a pH of 7. A substance with a pH of 7 is neither acidic nor basic. Acids have a pH lower than 7 and bases have a pH higher than 7. The pH scale ranges from 0 to ­14. Litmus ­Paper Litmus paper changes color in the presence of an acid or a base. Substances like litmus paper are called ­ acid-­base indicators. An ­ acid-­base indicator responds to the concentration of hydro-­ gen ions in a solution by changing color.

The flowers of a hydrangea bush are blue if the plant is growing in acidic soil. The flowers are pink if the soil is alkaline. It is not actually the hydro-­ gen ion concentration, however, that makes the flowers blue, but rather aluminum (Al) compounds. 5 or lower, aluminum com-­ pounds are in a form that the plant can absorb. A high aluminum concentra-­ tion in the flowers makes them blue. 5 or higher, however, the aluminum compounds are not available in the correct form and the plant cannot absorb them.

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