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By Frederick Copleston

Conceived initially as a major presentation of the advance of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A background Of Philosophy has journeyed a long way past the modest goal of its writer to common acclaim because the most sensible heritage of philosophy in English.

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Extra resources for A History of Philosophy, Volume 9: Modern Philosophy from the French Revolution to Sartre, Camus, and Lévi-Strauss

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At the same time Saint-Simon also stresses the importance of man's economic life by what he has to say about the rise of the class of merchants and artisans. In his opinion the feudal society of the Middle Ages reached its culminating point in the eleventh century. After See, for example, what is said by E. Brehier in the sixth volume of his History of Philosophy (The Nineteenth Century; Period of Systems, r800-r850. translated by Wade Baskin, Chicago and London, 1968, p. 267). Fo~ Tu~got and Condorcet, s~ Vol.

But the point is not developed. 3. Victor Cousin (1792-1867) came of a family of poor artisans in Paris. It is related that in 1803, when playing in the gutter, he intervened to rescue a pupil of the Lycee Charlemagne from a gang of pursuing schoolmates, and that in gratitude the boy's mother undertook to provide for Cousin's education. 1 At the Lycee Charlemagne Cousin carried off the prizes, and on leaving the school he gained entry to the Ecole Normale. As soon as he had finished his course of studies he was appointed assistant professor of Greek, being then twenty years old.

For with the aid of the principles of substance and causality it enables us to refer the interior phenomena of willed effort to the self or ego and passively received impressions to an external world or Nature. These two realities, the ego and the non-ego, limit one another, as Fichte held, and cannot constitute the ultimate reality. Both must be ascribed to the creative activity of God. It is thus reason which enables us to emerge from the subjective sphere and to develop an ontology in 1 Fragments PhilosophiqUBS (1838 edition).

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