By Akira Hirakawa
The current quantity is a translation of the 1st of Hirakawa's two-volume heritage. It
covers the interval from Sakyamuni* Buddha to Early Mahayana* in advance of Nagarjuna*
and comprises the classes on which Hirakawa did so much of his personal past learn. From
1960 to 1968, he released 3 very important stories on Buddhist associations: Ritsuzo* no
kenkyu* (A examine of the Vinaya-pitaka*), Genshi Bukkyo* no kenkyu (A research of Early
Buddhism), and Shoki Daijo* Bukkyo no kenkyu (Studies in Early Mahayana Buddhism).
These stories, all popping out of his curiosity within the vinaya, tested his mastery of
Indian Buddhist institutional background. This study used to be really very important in his
formulation of a brand new idea of the increase of Mahayana *. by way of targeting the necessity to identify
an institutional base from which Mahayana arose, Hirakawa argued that stupa* worship
and the formula of Mahayana units of precepts supplied vital facts for the
development of Mahayana Buddhism.
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Additional info for A History of Indian Buddhism, From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna
T h r o u g h these practices the m in d cou ld be co n cen trated a n d focused until it h ad becom e qu iet o r tho ught h a d ceased. A dvocates o f the vario u s schools o f yoga claim ed th at a form o f m ystical wisdom could be realized th ro u g h such practices. B ud dh ist dhydna differed from yogte tra n ce in th at it was m u c h m ore d y n a m ic ; it w as a form of m ental co n cen tratio n th at p erm ittied ihe free activity o f w isdom . T h e definition o f B u dd hist en lig h ten m en t as " se e in g things as they actually a r e " suggests the d y n am ic n a tu r e o f Buddhist m e d ita tio n .
A ccording to G o sa llp u tra , a personas rise o r fa)) in the world was d e te rm in e d by fate, not by his actions. H is followers w ere tailed ihe Ajlvaka* (Ajivikas). T h e term “ Ajrvilta1’ is tra n sla te d in C h in ese Huddhiflt Texts as ,ca h etero do x religion (whose m e m b e rs lead) an evil life” (hsith-ming wai-tao)^ how ever, the In d ia n te rm probably m e a n t " th o s e w ho follow a strict m ode o f lifer' h referrin g 10 the severe austerities p e r form ed by the Ajivika followers.
At th at tim e , the public road k n o w n as the N o r th e rn R oute ( U tta r a p a th a ) b e g a n at SravastE, rail cast past K a p ila v a itu , a n d then tu rn e d south to K u S inagara, Vaisali, a n d the G a n g e s R iver. T h e road th en crossed the C a n g e s , e n te re d M a g a d h a , itnd e n d e d in fiapagrha S a k y a m u n i p ro b ab ly (raveled to the c ity o f R ajag rh ^ on this road. A cco rd in g io iraditional sources, K in g B im bU ara saw S a k y a m u n i b eg ging one d a y a n d d ecid ed Lo invite him to b e c o m e a m inister in the gov* e m in e n t, d isp atch e d a r e ia in rr lo p e rsu a d e S ak y am u n i lo a b a n d o n his religious quest, hut S a k y a m u n i refused.